Two Stories about Flying Explanation, Line by Line, Meaning of Difficult Words, English CBSE Class 10 NCERT First Flight Chapter 3


(Explanation and meaning of difficult words)



Author – Liam O’ Flasherly


Word Meaning
Seagull A type of bird
Ledge A projection of stone, Cliff


The small seagull (kid of bird) was sitting alone on his cliff. His two brothers and his sister had already flown away from the cliff two days ago. He was afraid to fly so he did not fly with them. So he remained at the cliff.



Word Meaning
Brink Edge
Flap Move quickly
Expanse Area, Region
Stretched Extended
Beneath Below


When he ran up to the edge of the cliff and tried to move his wings, he got frightened. A large area of sea extended below and it was so much below from his ledge. It appeared that sea was many miles down from his ledge.



He was sure that his wings would not support him to fly. So he turned around and ran back to his small place under the ledge. He used to sleep there during night.




Word Meaning
Flapped Moved quickly
Muster Gather, Summon, Collect
Take the plunge Decide and do something
Desperate Suicidal, Damaging


Although each of his brothers and his younger sister had much smaller wings, they ran towards the edge, moved their wings and flew away. But he could not gather enough courage to fly. He thought that he would die if he flew off the ledge.




Word Meaning
Shrilly Loudly, High pitched voice
Upbraiding Scolding
Starve Remain without food


His parents had come to call him. They were speaking loudly and scolding him. They even threatened him that they would not give him food unless he flew away. But to save his life he did not move. This had happened twenty four hours ago. After that nobody had come near him.




Word Meaning
Perfecting Learning more to become perfect
Skim Float, Glide


Two days ago, for the whole day he had seen that his parents were flying with his brothers and sisters. His brothers and sister were learning more about the art of flying. His parents were teaching them how to float on the waves and how to dive in the water to catch a fish.




Word Meaning
Herring A type of fish
Devour Eat greedily and quickly
Cackle Speak loudly, Laugh loudly
Plateau A level surface on a hill
Taunting Teasing
Cowardice Act of being coward


He had seen how his elder brothers caught their first herring fish. Then they stood on a rock and ate it eagerly. His parents were flying around them and were making a loud sound of happiness. Throughout the morning, the full family had been walking on a big platform which was at mid height between his ledge and sea. They were teasing him for being coward.




Word Meaning
Ascending Rising
Blazing Very hot, Burning


Now the sun had started rising in the sky. This caused lot of heat on his ledge. His ledge was facing south direction. He felt heat because he had not eaten since last night.




Word Meaning
Stepped Walked
Brink Edge
Pretended Acted


He slowly walked up to the edge of his cliff. He stood there on one leg. His other leg was hidden below his wings. He closed his eyes one by one. He acted as if he was sleeping.




Word Meaning
Take notice Pay attention, Look at
Dozing Sleeping
Preening Cleaning feathers by beak


Still nobody paid attention to him. His two brothers and sister were on the plateau. They were sleeping. Their head were touching their necks. His father was cleaning white feathers of his back by his beak.




Word Meaning
Hump Projection, Bump,
Tore Pulled apart
Now and again Repeatedly
Scrapped Rubbed, Scratched


Only his mother was looking at him. She was standing on a little hump on the plateau. Repeatedly, she pulled a piece from the fish that was lying at her feet. After eating that piece she rubbed each side of her beak on the rock.




Word Meaning
Maddened Became mad
Whet Grind, Sharpen


By looking at the scene of food, he became mad. [He became more hungry]. He very much liked to pull the food, to again and again rub his beak on the rock to sharpen it.




Word Meaning
Begging Requesting earnestly
Derisively Teasingly
Plaintively Say with sadness
Utter Speak


He started crying to beg her to bring some food for him. She shouted and teased him. But he kept making requests with sadness. After a minute he spoke and shouted with happiness.




Word Meaning
Lean To bend


His mother had picked a piece of fish and she was flying towards him. He bent forward eagerly. He was tapping the rock with his feet. He was trying to come nearer to her as she was flying towards him.




Word Meaning
Halted Stopped
Dived Jumped in air


But when she was very close to him, she stopped in air. Her wings were not moving. The piece of fish in her beak was very close to him. He waited on the ledge with surprise. He was thinking why she was not coming nearer. Then he was so hungry that he jumped in the air to catch the fish.




Word Meaning
Monstrous Huge
Seized Gripped
Still Stopped, Motionless
Hear Listen


Shouting loudly he fell outwards and downwards into the air. Then a huge terror gripped him. He was very much afraid. His heart stopped beating. He was not able to listen anything. But this happened for a very short time only.



Next moment he felt that his wings had spread outwards. The wind was flowing with speed against feather of his chest, stomach and wings. He felt that ends of his wings were pushing the air. [Means had had started moving his wings]




Word Meaning
Soaring Flying
Gradually Slowly
Dizzy Feeling of spinning, Giddy


He was not falling to the ground on his head. He was flying slowly downward and outwards. Now he was not afraid. He felt as if his head was spinning. Then he moved his wings and he flew upwards.




Word Meaning
Swooped Rushed, Moved suddenly and quickly
Curveting Flying up and down
Banking Rise up
Soaring Flying
Diving Go down


His mother quickly moved ahead of him. Her wings were making a loud noise. He once again made a loud cry. His father made a loud voice while flying near and over him. He saw that his two brothers and sister were also flying close to him. They flew up, they flew down, sometimes they rose up, flew straight and sometimes went down.




Word Meaning
Commended Appreciated, Praised
Shriek Shout


Then he completely forgot that once he did not know how to fly. He appreciated himself that he was able to fly. He started to dive, soar and make curve. He gave a loud and sharp voice of happiness.




Word Meaning
Cawed Sound of a bird or crow
Amusedly Happily


Now he was near the sea. He was flying just above the sea and looking at the sea. He saw very big sea of green colour below him. Small waves were moving in the sea. He turned his beak towards  his side and made a sound of happiness.




Word Meaning
Ahead of Before
Beckoning Calling, Signalling


His parents, his brothers and his sisters were now sitting on that green sea before he reached there. They were signalling him to come there. He tried to put his legs on the sea to stand. But his legs went into the sea.




Word Meaning
Fright Fear
Exhausted Completely tired


He shouted because of fear and tried to rise again by flapping (moving) his wings. But he was very tired and weak because of hunger. He was completely tired because of the strange exercise called flying.




Word Meaning
Scraps Pieces
Belly Stomach
Dog fish A type of fish


His feet went into the green sea. His stomach touched the sea. He was not sinking now. He was floating on the sea. His family members were around him. They all were shouting and appreciating him. They were offering pieces of dog fish to him in their beaks.



He had flown for the first time. He had taken his first flight.





Author – Fredrik Forsyth

The moon was rising in the sky in the east direction behind me. The stars were shining in the clear sky above me. There were no clouds in the sky. I was so happy to be alone in the sky while all people in villages were sleeping.




Word Meaning
Dakota A type of plane
Looking forward To be eager


I was flying my old Dakota aeroplane over France. I was going to England. I was thinking about my holidays and was eager to be with my family. The time by my watch was one thirty in the morning. [After midnight]



I thought that I should call Paris Control room soon. I looked down beyond the nose of the aeroplane. I saw lights of a big city. I switched on my radio (wireless device) and enquired if Paris Control room was able to hear me. I said that I was going to England.




Word Meaning
Ought Must, Should


The voice from the radio answered my call immediately. DS 088, I can hear you. Now you must take a 12 degrees turn towards west. DS 088. Over.




Word Meaning
Switch over Change


I checked my map and the compass. I started taking fuel for the aeroplane from the second and last fuel tank. I turned my Dakota twelve degree west towards England. I thought that I would reach there at the time of breakfast. It will be a nice and big English breakfast. Everything was happening well. It was an easy flight.



When I saw the clouds Paris was 150 KM behind me. These were clouds of storm. They were huge clouds. They looked like black mountains standing in the sky before me. I knew that I could not take my plane above these clouds and fly over them. And I did not have much fuel in the plane to take a turn and go around these clouds.




Word Meaning
Wanted to get home Wanted to reach home
Straight into Directly into


I thought that I should go back to Paris but I wanted to reach home as soon as possible. I wanted to have breakfast there. So I thought that I would take the risk. I flew my old Dakota plane directly into the storm.



When the plane went into the clouds, suddenly everything became black. It was impossible to see anything outside the plane. The aeroplane jumped and twisted (rotated) in the air.



Then I looked at the compass. I could not believe what I saw. The needle of compass was turning round and round. The compass was not working. Suddenly all other instruments also stopped working.



I checked the radio [wireless]. I spoke in the radio to contact Paris Control room. There was no answer. The radio was also not working. The compass was not working. I could not see anything. I was lost in the storm.




Word Meaning
Next to me Close to me


Then in the black clouds, very near to me I saw another aeroplane. It did not have lights on its wings but I was able to see it. It was flying close to my plane in the storm. I saw face of the pilot. He was looking at me.




Word Meaning
Waved Signalled


I was very happy to see another person. He lifted his one hand and signalled at me. He was asking me to follow him. I thought that he knew I was lost in the storm. He was trying to help me.



He turned his plane slowly to north. Now his plane was flying in front of my Dakota. Therefore it was easier for me to follow him. I was very happy to go behind that strange aeroplane. I was behaving like an obedient child.



After half an hour, we were still in clouds. The strange black aeroplane was flying in front of my plane. Now fuel in my plane was sufficient to fly for five or ten minutes more. I was again getting afraid. At that time, the other plane started going down. And I was moving behind the plane through the storm.



Suddenly my plane came out of clouds. I saw two long straight line of lights in front of my plane. It was runway of an airport. I was safe now. I tried to look at my friend who was in the black aeroplane. But there was nothing in the sky. The black aeroplane had disappeared. I could not see it anywhere.



I landed my Dakota on the runway. I was happy to walk away from my old Dakota plane to the control tower. I went in and asked a woman where I was.[Meaning which airport was that] I also asked who the pilot of another plane was. I wanted to say thanks to him.



She strangely looked at me and laughed. She said tonight no other aeroplane was flying in the storm. My aeroplane was the only plane she had seen on the radar.



Then who had helped me to arrive safely without a radio or a compass and without any fuel left in the tank of my plane? Who was the pilot of that strange aeroplane? He was flying in the storm without lights.





Author – Carolyn Wells


Word Meaning
East Eastern hemisphere
Tawny Yellowish-brownish colour
Beast Large animal
Poetic Devices
If he roars at you Personification
If he roars at you as you’re dyin’ Repetition
If he roars at you as you’re dyin’ Assonance
You should go by chance Assonance

If, by chance, you go to the jungles of countries of eastern hemisphere, if a yellowish brownish colour animal comes towards you, if he roars and you feel like dying, you should know that the animal is Asian Lion.

The poet is describing Asian Lion. She says that Asian Lion lives in jungles of the countries of eastern hemisphere. It is a big animal. Its colour is yellowish brownish. Its roar is so loud that a weak hearted person can die because of roar only.





Word Meaning
Roaming Walking, Moving
Noble Royal
Stripes Lines
Discern Recognise


Poetic Devices
sometimes roaming round Alliteration
Or sometimes when roaming round Assonance

Roaming around in the jungle sometimes you may see a royal animal with black lines on yellow skin. There is a simple rule to identify this animal. If he eats you, then you can identify it as a Bengal Tiger.

The poet is describing Bengal Tiger. She says this it looks royal. It has black stripes on its yellow body. It is a fierce animal, it can eat you. If it tries to attacks you, then you can identify it as Bengal Tiger. This is slightly humourous way of describing a Bengal Tiger. If it has eaten you,  there is no point in identifying it.




Word Meaning
Strolling Walking leisurely
Forth Ahead
Hide Skin
Peppered Spots on everywhere
Lept Jumped, Leaped
‘Twill It will


Poetic Devices
As soon as he has lept Alliteration
As soon as he has lept Personification
If strolling forth Assonance
He’ll only lep and lep again Repetition

Walking ahead in the jungle, you may see an animal which has black spots all over its skin. And as soon as he jumps on you, you will know that it is a leopard. It will have no meaning in crying with pain, because it will bite you again and again.

Poet is describing a leopard. She says that it has black spots all over its body. She says that as soon as you see it, you will know that it a leopard. It is very quick to act. Once a leopard catches its prey, it does not leave it. So there would be no meaning in shouting and crying with pain if a leopard catches you.




Word Meaning
Caress Hug, Pat
Poetic Devices
If when you are walking Alliteration
Who hugs you very very hard Alliteration
Who hugs you very very hard Repetition

When you are walking around in your garden, you may meet an animal there. It will hug you very tightly. Then you can be sure that it is a bear. If you are in a doubt about it, the bear will  hug you once again.

Poet is describing a bear. She says that a bear may not necessarily live in jungle. Sometimes it comes in houses also. It always tries to give a tight hug to others. Then you can be sure that it is  a bear. It may hug you many times. The bear hugs it prey and then eats it.




Word Meaning
Distinguish Identify, Differentiate
Novice Inexperienced, Beginner
Nonplus To become confused
Beast of prey Animals who hunt
Hyena A type of animal
Merry Happy
Weep To cry


Poetic Devices
A novice might nonplus Alliteration
Tell from Hyena thus Alliteration
But if they weep they’re crocodiles Repetition

An inexperienced person may get confused in identifying animals who hunt for their food. Hyenas appear to be laughing when eating their prey. While crocodile may appear to be crying while eating their prey.

Poet says that some animal have special characteristics. These may not be known to an inexperienced or a beginner. When a hyena is happy and eating its prey, its voice appears to be a laugh of human beings. While a crocodile may appear to be crying while eating its prey. It is said that tears come out of crocodile’s eyes when it is eating.




Poetic Devices
He hasn’t any ears at all Personification
He hasn’t any ears at all Alliteration
If there is nothing on the tree, Alliteration

A chameleon is a small animal. It looks like a lizard. It does not have ears. It does not have wings. Chameleon changes its colour to match with surroundings. So if one does not see anything on a tree, a chameleon could still be on that tree.

The poet is describing a chameleon. She says that it looks like a lizard. It does not have wings or ears. A chameleon changes it colour according to its surroundings. Hence poet says that it is difficult to locate a chameleon on a tree. Even if you do not see it on a tree, it may still be there on that tree.






Author – John Berryman



Word Meaning
Merrily Happily
Poetic Devices
What is the boy now, who has lost his ball, Alliteration
Merrily over — there it is in the water! Oxymoron
What, what is he to do? Repetition

The boy was playing in a street. He has been playing happily with a ball. The ball was bouncing again and again. The boy was happy. Then suddenly the ball went into a pool of water. The boy is not able to find the ball. What will the boy now do?



Word Meaning
Shaking Disturbing
Grief Sadness, Sorrow
Ultimate Extreme
Rigid Motionless
Trembling Shaking, Quivering
Harbour Pool of water
Intrude To Disturb


Poetic Devices
As he stands rigid, trembling, staring down Alliteration
All his young days into the harbour where Alliteration
His ball went. I would not intrude on him; Alliteration

It was of no use to suggest to buy a new ball. The boy seems to have emotional attachment with his old ball. He is extremely sad at having lost it. He is standing motionless in the street looking at the pool of water. He thinks that all his playful days have gone into the water. I do not have the courage to disturb him in his thinking. I want him to understand that in life sometimes one needs to bear loss also.




Word Meaning
Dime Small amount of money
Worthless Of small value, Insignificant


Poetic Devices
In a world of possessions. People will take Alliteration
Balls, balls will be lost always, little boy. Repetition
Balls, balls will be lost always, little boy. Alliteration

Cost of the ball is very small and insignificant. But now he is feeling the responsibility of taking care of his things. People will say that a new ball can be bought because the world believes in buying materials. But the little boy thinks that the new ball will not be same as his old ball.



Word Meaning
Desperate Full of sorrow
Epistemology True meaning of feelings or knowledge
Stand up Understand, Accept, Tolerate


Poetic Devices
And no one buys a ball back. Alliteration
Knowing what every man must one day know Alliteration
And most know many days, Alliteration

The boy has understood that nobody can buy back the same ball. Money is an external aspect to emotions. He is learning this truth of his life. This learning can be seen in his eyes which are full of sorrow. He is trying to understand the meaning of a loss and how to understand and tolerate a loss. One day everyone will understand how to bear the loss. Some people have understood many days before learning how to tolerate a loss.




Important Links
Two Stories about Flying – Textbook Q&A Two Stories about Flying – Extra Q&A
Nelson Mandela – Explanation From the Diary of Anne Frank – Explanation
Nelson Mandela – Textbook Q&A From the Diary of Anne Frank – Textbook Q&A
Nelson Mandela – Extra Q&A From the Diary of Anne Frank – Extra Q&A
Re-arrange Exercises Error Finding Exercises
Active-Passive Rules Gap Filling Exercises
Passages Direct-Indirect Speech Rules
Story Writing Tips Letter Writing



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