English CBSE Class 11 NCERT Hornbill Chapter 3 Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues Free Solution of Textbook Questions and Answers
DISCOVERING TUT: THE SAGA CONTINUES
Understanding the text
Q 1. Give reasons for the following.
(i) King Tut’s body has been subjected to repeated scrutiny.
Answer: Archaeologist wanted to ascertain the cause of death and the age at which King Tut died. These aspects have not yet been determined.
Thus there have been number of investigations.
(ii) Howard Carter’s investigation was resented.
Answer: Howard Carter did not use scientific methods to know more about mummy. Thus the coffin and mummy got damaged during his investigation. He appears to have concentrated more on the valuable things placed with the mummy.
Hence his investigation is regretted.
(iii) Carter had to chisel away the solidified resins to raise the king’s remains.
Answer: The resin used in preparing mummy had become very hard. The mummy was cemented with the bottom portion of the coffin. Placing of the coffin in hot Sun did not melt the resin. So to separate the mummy from the coffin, carter ordered to chisel away the resin.
(iv) Tut’s body was buried along with gilded treasures.
Answer: People of ancient Egypt believed in life after death. They believed that they could take their things with them after death. These things would guarantee resurrection after death. Since Tut was a wealthy king, things placed in his burial were made of gold.
(v) The boy king changed his name from Tutankhaten to Tutankhamun.
Answer: He had faith in god Amun. Probably he thought that he was the representative of Amun on the earth. So he changed his name to Tutankhamun. Meaning of this name is ‘living image of Amun’.
Q 2. (i) List the deeds that led Ray Johnson to describe Akhenaten as “wacky”.
Answer: He moved his capital from city of Thebes to city of Akhetaten. He started breaking images and demolishing temples of god Amun. He had changed his own name. Thus Ray Johnson called him ‘wacky’.
(ii) What were the results of the CT scan?
Answer: About 1700 images of different parts of body of Tut were taken. These were combined to create image of skull, hand, neck vertebrae and rib cage. These collated images indicated that probably nothing wrong had happened with the structure of body of Tut.
(iii) List the advances in technology that have improved forensic analysis.
Answer: Through X-ray and CT scan considerable improvement has occurred in forensic analysis. Additionally several other tests like autopsy, biopsy, DNA test etc have also improved forensic analysis.
(iv) Explain the statement, “King Tut is one of the first mummies to be scanned — in death, as in life…”
Answer: Tut was the king. So he occupied the position of being the first among citizens of his country. Thus he was the first among many during his lifetime.
His mummy was the first to be scanned. So he was first among many even after his death.
Talking about the text
Discuss the following in groups of two pairs, each pair in a group taking opposite points of view.
In this type of questions students are expected to draw out different opinion about each of the topics. Such opinions should them be summarized as being for the topic or against the topic.
Q 1. Scientific intervention is necessary to unearth buried mysteries.
For the topic
Every nation has huge account of history and past glory. However these may appear to be guess work or a probable situation unless an evidence is provided. The scientific approach can provide such evidences. We can determine the age of old artefacts and many other things through carbon dating. We can deploy forensic analysis and radiology to determine several aspects of past. Many other technology also exist that help us reconstruct history.
This scientific intervention is necessary to unearth mysteries.
Against the topic
Every culture has a rich heritage of history and traditions. Events are narrated and their knowledge is transferred from generation to generation. This gets documented in books and folklores. Why do we need to investigate and prove their veracity? What would it serve to know about reason and time of death of Tut. Even through the most sophisticated scientific devices, it is not possible to determine the exact cause and exact time.
Therefore we should not waste our resource in knowing the past. We should utilize resources to construct a better future for the society.
Q 2. Advanced technology gives us conclusive evidence of past events.
For the topic
Several developments have been made in technology. These have become more refined and deterministic with passage of time. Nowadays it is possible to determine the age of a body with the minutest sample. DNA test and Carbon Dating method are two such examples. Non-destructive tests like CT scan, sonography, MRI, X-rays etc. too have become very accurate. We can take cross-section of any solid body without damaging it. Hence it is possible to draw a conclusive evidence of past events. Such evidences keeps people away from myths and distorted stories of the past.
Against the topic
Every test proclaimed to be accurate, gives a range of time frame about age of a body. The imaging technique is based on the resonance and speed of magnetic waves. These two aspects vary a lot for different pieces of same composition. Wrong interpretation of images or inferences often creates confusion. If machines were accurate, we would not have latest versions of each type of machine claiming to be better than the previous. Thus advancement in technology can never reconstruct the past accurately.
Q 3. Traditions, rituals and funerary practices must be respected.
For the topic
Every society had its own customs and traditions with respect to every stage of life. These are established on the basis of prevailing belief systems at that time. Whether dead bodies are burnt, buried or mummified, would solely depend upon funerary practices across sections of society. We must respect the tradition of every society.
Against the topic
More often than not, traditions of society are based on the situations and thoughts prevailing during olden times. These aspects do undergo a change with development of society. Nowadays mummies are not made in Egypt. Even in other countries method of funeral has changed a lot. Thus tradition should be critically reviewed in every society. We must get rid of rituals that are no longer necessary in present time.
Q 4. Knowledge about the past is useful to complete our knowledge of the world we live in.
For the topic
The present is constructed over the past. A good knowledge of about past is necessary to understand the development we have made from the time immemorial. It helps to retain the knowledge relevant today and shun the un-necessary activity. Knowledge of past helps us to avoid reinventing the wheel for everything. We derive lessons from the events of the past. Thus knowledge of past is required for continual development of world.
Against the topic
It is simply a waste of time to delve in the past. We should never get fascinated with the past. Change is the only constant thing in the world. Developments would continue to happen in world. Therefore we must concentrate our efforts in making our present better so that future is also better. Basking in the glory of past makes one lazy and incompetent. We need to take the world to new level through creativity and innovative solutions.
Working with words
Q 1. Given below are some interesting combinations of words. Explain why they have been used together.
|Ghostly dust devils||Dust / sand rose in the air with winds. It looked like an image|
|Desert sky||Sky in a desert|
|Stunning artefact||Ornaments were very beautiful and extraordinary|
|Funerary treasures||Things found in the coffin were valuable|
|Scientific detachments||Unscientific method|
|Dark-bellied clouds||Clouds appeared black from the earth|
|Casket grey||The colour of sky was light grey|
|Eternal brilliance||Everlasting beauty|
|Ritual resins||Resin used as ritual for funeral|
|Virtual body||Not existing physically, Just an image|
Q 2. Here are some commonly used medical terms. Find out their meanings.
|CT scan||It is a machine that produces several images of a body or a thing. These can be combined to create a virtual body.|
|MRI||Magnetic Resonance Imaging uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of the organs and tissues within the body.|
|Tomography||A method to make cross section of body or a solid object by taking series of X-rays or ultra sound|
|Autopsy||A surgical process of a dead body to examine extent of disease|
|Dialysis||A technique to purify blood of a person who is suffering from disease of kidneys|
|ECG||An electrocardiogram or ECG is a test to check functioning of heart by measuring the electrical activity of the heart.|
|Post mortem||A surgical procedure to examine vital organs of a dead body to know cause of death|
|Angiography||Angiography is an imaging test that uses X-rays to view blood vessels of human body. This test is used to study narrow, blocked, enlarged, or malformed arteries or veins in many parts of human body.|
|Biopsy||A biopsy is a sample of tissue taken from the body for detailed examination for presence and extent of disease.|
Things to do
Q 1. The constellation Orion is associated with the legend of Osiris, the god of the afterlife. Find out the astronomical descriptions and legends associated with the following.
(i) Ursa Major (Saptarishi mandala)
Ursa Major is a constellation that has seven stars. It is also known as Great Bear. If a line joining two of its stars is extended it points towards Pole Star. In Hindu Mythology this is called Saptarishi Mandal – group of seven sages
(ii) Polaris (Dhruva tara)
Ploarsis is called also Pole Star. It is always seen in north direction. Hence it is used by navigators for determining direction. It emits yellow light. In Hindu Mythology it is known as Dhruva Tara. As one moves towards north, the pole star appear higher in the sky. At north pole it is exactly overhead you.
(iii) Pegasus (Winged horse)
Pegasus is a horse with wings in Greek Mythology. Its colour is white. It emerged from the blood of Medusa – a female monster that had snakes as her hair. It is believed that wherever Pegasus put its foot on earth, a spring of water emerged. In modern times it is considered as emblem of inspiration.
(iv) Sirius (Dog Star)
It is considered the brightest star in the sky. It emits blue light. It is part of constellation Canis Major. It is named after the dog of Greek mythological character Orion. People of Egypt worshipped it as goddess Sopdet – guarantor of fertility of their land. The Greek believed that appearance of Sirius heralded dry and hot summer.
(v) Gemini (Mithuna)
It is one of the nine zodiac signs. Its symbol is twins.
Q 2. Some of the leaves and flowers mentioned in the passage forvadorning the dead are willow, olive, celery, lotus, cornflower. Which of these are common in our country?
Answer: Willow, olive, lotus and cornflower are found in India.
Q 3. Name some leaves and flowers that are used as adornments in our country.
Answer: Lotus, rose, jasmine and marigold flowers are used for adornments. Leaves of mango, ashoka, peepal and banana are used during auspicious occasions for decoration.
The Laburnum Top
Think it out
Q 1. What do you notice about the beginning and the ending of the poem?
Answer: In the beginning of the poem the tree was silent and standing quite still. At the end of the poem, the tree once again came back to its original status.
Q 2. To what is the bird’s movement compared? What is the basis for the comparison?
Answer: Movements of bird is compared to that of a lizards. The bird was moving as carefully and delicately as a lizard moves. Her movements were abrupt as well.
Q 3. Why is the image of the engine evoked by the poet?
Answer: The engine is the source of power and movement to a machine. Similarly the bird is source of food and survival to its chicks. Hence the image of engine has been evoked by the poet.
Q 4. What do you like most about the poem?
Answer: The affection among the family of bird is the best aspect of the poem. The happiness among the family is the most valuable aspect.
Q 5. What does the phrase “her barred face identity mask” mean?
Answer: The yellow and black spots or stripes are her identity. A goldfinch is recognized by such colour combinations.
Q 1. the sound words
Answer: Chirrup, Chitterings, trillings, Whisperings
Q 2. the movement words
Answer: Comes, Sleek, Abrupt, Enters, Flirts, Launches, Starts up
Q 3. the dominant colour in the poem.
List the following
Q 1. Words which describe ‘sleek’, ‘alert’ and ‘abrupt’.
Answer: lizard, machine, suddenness
Q 2. Words with the sound ‘ch’ as in ‘chart’ and ‘tr’ as in ‘trembles’ in the poem.
Answer: Chirrup, goldfinch, twitching, branch, chitterings,
Q 3. Other sounds that occur frequently in the poem.