English CBSE Class 11 NCERT Hornbill Chapter 3 Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues Line by Line Explanation and Meaning of Difficult Words
DISCOVERING TUT: THE SAGA CONTINUES
Author – AR Williams
|forensic reconstruction||Scientific rebuilding of past events|
|scudded across||Moved quickly|
|casket grey||Light black or grey colour|
|resurrection||Bringing someone back to life|
|funerary treasures||Costly items placed in the coffin|
|computed tomography||Images made in CT scan|
|eerie detail||Mysterious details|
|Laid to rest||Cremated|
|Laden with||Carrying large quantity|
|Eventually||Finally, At last|
He died at a young age. He was the heir of a powerful family. The family was ruler of Egypt and its empire. The family had ruled it since many centuries. During his cremation, many ornament of gold were put on him. Finally, after many days nobody remembered him.
|Tomb||Structure built on a grave|
|Most extreme||Most unlikely|
His tomb was discovered in 1992. The modern world is trying to guess what could have caused his death. It is felt that murder is the most unlikely cause of his death. Name of the person buried under the tomb is Tut.
|CT scan||Taking image of internal parts of body|
|Forensic||Scientific investigation of crime|
|reconstruction||Rebuilding of past events|
|Pharoah||Ruler of Egypt|
After 80 years from taking out corpse of Titu from his tomb, CT scan has been done. This may give some more hints about life and cause of his death. This may provide accurate data about events that caused death of this boy king of Egypt.
|Angry wind||Strong wind|
|Dust devils||Wind full of dust|
|Valley of the Kings||Valley where kings of Egypt were cremated|
A strong wind started a dangerous storm full of dust. This happened while corpse of King Tut was being taken out from the tomb. Here only the kings of Egypt were cremated. So the place was known as valley of the Kings.
|Casket grey||Light black or grey colour|
Clouds appeared black from the Earth. During whole day these were moving quickly in the sky of the desert. Now it was 6 PM on 5th January 2005. The clouds had hidden the stars. Colour of the sky was light grey.
|CT scanner||Machine for CT scan|
The most famous mummy of the world was put into the CT scanner machine. The head of the mummy was put first. The mummy was brought to investigate the secrets yet to be discovered about the young ruler. This ruler, Tut, had died more than 3300 year ago.
|Cramped||Small, Narrow, Tiny|
During the afternoon, as usual, tourists from all over the world had gathered around the tomb. The tomb is very narrow and it is made by cutting a rock. It is 26 feet below the ground. All the tourist had come there to pay their respect to the young king.
|Murals||Painting on wall|
|Burial chamber||Room where somebody is buried|
|Peered||Looked carefully, Looked intently|
|Gilded||Golden or covered with gold|
|Most striking||Most noticeable, Most important|
The tourists stared at the painting made on the wall of the room where Tut was buried. They carefully looked at the golden coloured face of Tut. This was the most noticeable aspect visible from the lid of coffin. The coffin was shaped like a mummy.
|Guidebook||Book having information about the place|
|Untimely death||Unexpected death|
|Shiver||Tremble, Quiver, Fear|
Some visitors were reading the guidebook in a low voice. Others were standing silently as if thinking carefully about the unexpected death of Tutu during his teenage. They were also thinking with a fear if the curse associated with the mummy was really true. It was believed that anybody who disturbed the pharaoh would either die or have bad luck.
Zahi Hawass was a high level officer of the department that took care of old monument in Egypt. He was the first person among the visitors to bend and to look carefully at the mummy. He looked at it for a long time. He declared that condition of the mummy is bad because of damaged caused by Carter to it in 1920s.
|British||Resident of Britain|
|Archaeologist||Person who studies history through old monuments|
|Hastily||Quickly, Hurriedly, Without any thinking|
Full name of Carter was Howard Carter. He was a British archaeologist. He had discovered the tomb of Tut after years of unsuccessful searching. The contents of the mummy were damaged because of actions taken without much thinking. But all the contents of the mummy were available. Nothing had been taken away.
The contents of the mummy are the richest contents of a royal family ever found. These are the part of the tradition of pharaoh.
|Artefact||Ornament of ancient time|
|Resurrection||Bringing someone back to life|
Extraordinary ornaments of gold of everlasting beauty were placed in the mummy. It was believed that these ornaments would guarantee that someday pharaoh would be alive again. When the tomb was discovered, this belief caused lot of interest and excitement. Even today, lot of attention is paid to this belief.
|Afterlife||Life after death|
|Board game||Game played on board like Ludo, chess|
Tut was buried with almost everything he might need during his life after death. Board games, a bronze razor, undergarments and boxes full of food and wine were place in his grave.
|Recording||Documenting, Wrote in detail|
|Funerary||Pertaining to funeral|
|Nested||Placed an object within another|
Crater carefully made a record of every valuable item found in the tomb of pharaoh. It took many months to complete this task. After that he started investigating the three coffins which were placed within another coffin. In the first coffin there was second coffin. And in the second coffin there was third coffin.
|Shroud||Cloth usually worn over body|
|Willow||Type of a tree|
|Olive||Type of a tree|
|Wild celery||Type of a tree|
|Petals||Leaves of a flower|
|Cornflowers||Flowers of corn|
When Carter opened the first coffin, he found a cloth spread inside it. The cloth was decorated with garlands made of leaves and flowers. It was an unclear evidence that the burial had taken place in March or April. This was inferred because those flowers were available only during that time of the year.
|Ran into trouble||Faced problem,|
|Ritual||Customary, According to customs|
|Legitimate||According to correct method|
After opening other nested coffins, he reached the mummy. Now he faced a problem. The customary gum used in the coffin had become hard. Now Tut’s mummy was sticking to the bottom of the coffin made in solid gold. He tried to forcefully remove the mummy from the coffin. He used acceptable and correct methods to remove the mummy. So that neither the coffin nor the mummy is damaged. He did not know what should be done.
|Sun can beat down like a hammer||Sun is very hot|
|Nothing budged||Nothing happened|
The sun is very hot in that southern part of Egypt. Carter tried to use heat of Sun to melt the resin. For many hours he kept the mummy in very hot sunshine. The sunshine heated the mummy to 149 degree Fahrenheit. It is equal to 65 degree Celsius. But nothing happened to resin. It did not melt.
|Detachment||Keeping away from something|
|Chiselled||Broke with the help of chisel|
|Remains||Dead body or its parts|
He wrote that the solidified resin had to be broken using a chisel. This method was not a scientific method. He wrote that breaking of resin from below the arms, legs and body of mummy was necessary. It was required to remove the mummy of the king from the coffin.
|Little choice||No choice|
Carter justified his action by saying that no other option was available at that time. If he had not cut the mummy to remove it from coffin, thieves would have broken the mummy to remove gold. Thieves would have found some method to dodge the guards put there to protect the mummy.
|Royals||People belonging to royal family|
During the times of Tut, people of royal family were extremely rich. They thought and also hoped that they would be able to take their wealth and treasure with them after their death.
|Journey to great beyond||Journey after death|
|Lavished||Given generously, Given in large amount|
|Collars||Type of ornament worn around neck|
|Amulets||Type of ornament that protects against evils|
|Iconic||Admirable, Very beautiful|
For the life after death, several shining and precious things were placed in the tomb of Tut. These things included precious collars, inlaid necklaces and bracelets, rings, amulets, a ceremonial apron, sandals, sheaths for his fingers and toes. A mask was also placed in the very beautiful coffin. All the things placed in the coffin were made of gold.
|Reassembled||Joined once again|
To separate ornaments from Tut, workers of Carter removed the head of mummy. They also cut almost every major joint of the mummy. After removing all the ornaments, they once again joined the body. They put a layer of sand in a wooden box and then placed the body in it. They put some packings and cushions to hide the damage caused to the mummy. Presently the mummy of Tut lies in this wooden box.
|Archaeology||The study of old things|
|Substantially||To a great extent|
|Intervening||Time between two events|
The archaeology has changed to a great extent between decades that have passed since then. It does not give much importance to the valuable things. It gives importance to the interesting details of life. It is curious to know secret reasons of death.
|Anatomy||Science of study of structure of human body|
Nowadays archaeology uses advanced and complex methods. This includes technology being used in medical science. The medical technology was used after more than 40 years of the discovery made by Carter. A professor of anatomy used X-ray to investigate the mummy. He discovered a shocking fact. The mummy covered by the resin, did not have breast bone and front ribs.
|Imaging||Taking photos by light or magnetic waves|
|Tomography||Taking cross-sectional photo of a solid body|
|Virtual||Not existing physically, Indirect,|
Nowadays many investigations can be done by taking photos through magnetic waves. The cross-section through a solid body can be calculated by computed tomography or CT Scanning. In this technique hundreds of X rays are taken. These photos are then combined together to indirectly form a three dimensional photo of the body.
Something was known about Tut through X-ray. What more would we know through CT scan. Can this answer two biggest questions about Tut. How did he die? What was his age at the time of his death?
|Last of family’s line||The youngest heir|
|Death rattle||The beginning of deaths|
|Dynasty||Rule by members of the same family|
Even within the royal family, death of Tut was a big event. He was the youngest heir in his family. His death and funeral was starting point of many more deaths in his family.
|At the height of||At the peak of , Most powerful|
|Golden age||The best period|
Amenhotep III was either father or grandfather of Tut. He was a powerful king. He had ruled Egypt for almost four decades. He was the most powerful king from the eighteenth family that ruled the Egypt. His rule is considered the best period for his country.
Amenhotep IV was son of Amenhotep III. He became king after death of Amenhotep III. His rule is considered the most unusual period in the history of ancient Egypt.
The new king Amenhotep IV started worship of Aten – meaning the Sun. He changed his name to Akhenaten, which means servant of Aten. He shifted his capital from Thebes to Akhetaten. This city is now known as Amarna.
Amenhotep IV gave more surprises to his countrymen when he attacked one of their god Amun. He broke idols of Amun and closed all the temples of this god.
|Horrific||Frightful, Causing fear|
|Wacky||Absurd, Silly, Foolish|
Ray Johnson was the director of research centre of University of Chicago in Luxor. This centre was at the location of ancient town of Thebes. He said that this period must have been a very frightful time for the people residing in that country. The family of Amenhotep IV had ruled Egypt for many centuries. It appeared to them that the rule of this dynasty was about to end. Amenhotep IV had started behaving in absurd manner.
|Mysterious||Strange, Not well known|
|Hardly a trace||Not making an impact, Not well known|
|Took to the throne||Became king|
|Widely known||Popularly known|
After death of Amenhotep IV, Smenkhkare became ruler. He is not well known in the history. He died without making any impact to the life of people. After him. A very young person Tutankhaten became the king. Today he is popularly known as Tut.
|Living image of Amun||Incarnation of Amun, Avataar of Amun|
|Restoration||Reconstruction, establish once again|
The king who was a boy, changed his name to Tutankhamun. Meaning of this name is incarnation of God Amun. Meaning that the God Amun has come to the Earth in the form of Tutankhamun. He once again established the previous customs. He ruled for about nine years. He died unexpectedly. Nobody had imagined that he would die so soon.
|Regardless||Despite, In spite of , Nevertheless|
|Fate||Destiny, Kismet, Nemesis|
In spite of his fame and guesses about his death, the mummy is just one of the many mummies in Egypt. Nobody knows how many mummies are there in Egypt.
|Began an inventory||Started counting, Started finding out|
|Still counting||More are being found, Continuing|
The Egyptian Mummy Project started in later part of 2003. Till now the project has found about 600 mummies. And the search for mummies is continuing. It is hoped that more mummies may be found.
|Next phase||Next step, Next stage|
|Portable||That can be easily moved to other place|
The next stage or step in the project is scanning of mummy with portable CT machines. These machines have been donated by National Geographic Society and Siemens. The machines are manufactured by Siemens. King Tut is one of the first mummies that would be scanned. During his life time Tut was the first among his countrymen. After death also he is royally ahead of his countrymen for scanning.
|Toe||Fingers in a foot|
|Slices||Thin, Very small|
|Eerie||Strange, Curious, Mysterious|
A CT scanning machine scanned the mummy of Tut from head to toe. It created 1700 X-ray images of the body. Tut’s head was scanned at an interval of very small distance of 0.62 millimeter. These images recorded every complex details of mummy. The image of scanning of head looks quite strange.
|Radiology||Science dealing with X-ray and imaging|
|Anatomy||Science of study of structure of human body|
|Gilded||Covered with gold|
|Shrine||A holy place|
The entire body of Tut was scanned in similar manner and its images were recorded. Scientist of various fields started investigations about secrets of the mummy. The burial place was considered a holy place. There was an image of a goddess that had wings. Since very long time it was believed that this goddess was protecting the burial place.
|Pallbearers||People carrying a coffin on shoulder|
|Flight of stairs||Series of stairs|
|Swirling||Moving in circular motion|
The scanning was done in night. During that night, workers carried the coffin of Tut from his tomb on their shoulders. They climbed a sloping pathway and then a flight of stairs. They reached the area outside the tomb. Because of wind, the sand was moving in a circular way. They entered a lift that was being operated through a hydraulic pump. They put the coffin into a trailer. The CT scan machine had been mounted on this trailer.
|Million –dollar scanner||Very costly scanner|
|Quit||Did not function|
|Nervously||Anxiously, Worriedly, fearfully|
After 20 minutes two man came out of the trailer. They ran towards nearby office. The came back with two plastic fans of white colour. The very costly scanner had stopped functioning because sand got into a cooler fan of the scanner. A guard anxiously said that cooler fan stopped functioning because of curse of pharaoh.
|Turn over||Hand over, Transfer, Give|
Finally the scanning was completed with the help of replacement fans. Technicians checked and confirmed that every data had been collected in the machine. Then technicians handed over Tut to workers. They carried the Tut back to his tomb.
In less than thirty hours the king was back to his tomb. It was the place where, after the funeral, he was placed by the priests very long time ago.
|Pulled up||Took out, Made|
In the trailer, a technician made a wonderful images of Tut on the screen of a computer. With the help of several dots spread all over the screen, shape of a head was created. Then technician rotated and tilted the image of head in every direction.
|Neck vertebrae||Bone of the neck|
|Rib cage||Group of bones on the chest|
|Skull||The outer bone of head|
The bone of the neck in the image was as clear as a chart would be in the class of anatomy. The other images were of hand, rib cage and views inside the skull.
|Pressure was off||Pressure was removed|
|Visibly||Clearly seen, Noticeably|
Now there was no pressure of work. Zahi Hawas sat in the chair. His back was touching the back rest of the chair. It was clearly seen that he was now a relaxed person because nothing had gone wrong while scanning. He said that during previous night he had not slept even for a second. He was worried. Now he wanted to sleep.
|Still||Not moving, Immobile|
We left the trailer by coming down the metal stairs and stepped on the ground that had lot of sand. By this time the wind had stopped. Because of winter season the atmosphere was cold. There was no movement of anything. Just like nothing moves after death, nothing was moving in this valley of death. Author has called it valley of death because all pharaoh were buried in this valley.
|Constellation||Group of stars|
Just above the entrance of the tomb of Tut, an image of Orion has been made. According to beliefs of ancient Egypt, Orion is the God of life after death. And this God was watching the boy king Tut.
The Laburnum Top
Poet – Ted Hughes
|Laburnum||Type of tree|
|Quite||To a great extent|
|In the afternoon yellow September sunlight||Alliteration|
The laburnum tree is silent. Its leaves towards its top portion are not making any movement. It is an afternoon of September month. There is good amount of sunlight on the tree. Some of its leaves have become yellow. All the seeds have fallen on the ground.
Poet has described sunshine as yellow. Leaf of trees are also describes as yellow. Poet is trying to give a monotonous colour to the surroundings. The monotony represents sadness.
|Goldfinch||Type of bird|
|Twitch||Move with a jerk|
|Chirrup||Sound of bird|
|A suddenness, a startlement,||Alliteration|
The sadness prevails till a goldfinch comes to the tree. It is twitching its tail and making high pitched sound. It suddenly sits on an end of a branch. That was a surprise.
|Lizard||A reptile animal|
|Trillings||Sound of baby birds,|
|Sleek as a lizard||Simile|
|and alert and abrupt||Repetition|
|and alert and abrupt||Alliteration|
|The whole tree trembles and thrills.||Alliteration|
The goldfinch is thin like a lizard. It is alert and move in sudden steps. Meaning that it jumps a bit then stops. Again jumps forward and stops. The bird is moving in the direction the branch is becoming thicker. Meaning that the bird is moving towards centre of the tree. As she moves towards the centre of the tree, its kids start making a continuous noise like a machine. They start flapping their wings and making sounds. Their happiness makes every part of the tree happy. The tree that was still earlier is now vibrating with happiness.
|Barred||Full of spots or stripes|
|Engine of her family||Metaphor|
|She stokes it full||Alliteration|
The baby-birds and the tree are the cause of motivation for the bird. Hence these are termed as engines for goldfinch. Then she starts moving out towards the end of the branch. There are black stripes on his face. These stripes are looking like a mask on her face. Her yellow body and black face is her identity.
|Whisperings||Voices of low volume|
The goldfinch then starts making a strange but pleasant sound in low volume. It is just like a soft whistle. Then it jumps off the branch and starts flying in the air and in the infinite world. The laburnum tree again becomes sad and lonely. At that time though the chicks of the bird are in the nest, but they are also not making any noise. So it is silence in the tree.